## Random Walk – Reading And Recall (34/365)

I said I wanted some awkward examples of random walks. After trying to shoehorn situations into a $+1$ or $-1$ movement, I think I have something.

Consider the reading of a book. It’s an activity that proceeds in sequence as we read one word after another from left to right. Let $w_1, \dots, w_n$ be the sequence of words in a book. Let’s say that there are two actions we can take when we encounter a word $w_i$.

1. $w_i$ is a new word that we have to learn: $\omega_i = +1$
2. $w_i$ is a word we already know that we can just recall: $\omega_i = -1$

What remains to figure out is what do we mean by ‘know the word’. Let’s get to this slowly. For now, consider the simplest form of memory. Let’s say that memory is a set $S$ to which we add an unknown word when learning and then remove a known word when recalling. I’ll end this post with some code and plots.

Let’s start with a typeclass for a memory model (for learning and recalling) that we can use again later. The learn method updates the model with an entry and the recall method returns a new model and also returns True if the given a was recalled.

> {-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-}
>
> import Data.Hashable
> import qualified Data.HashSet as HS
> import Data.Char
>
> class Mem m where
>   recall :: (Eq a, Hashable a) => m a -> a -> (m a, Bool)
>   learn :: (Eq a, Hashable a) => a -> m a -> m a


We create an instance for the simple model I described above.

> newtype SimpleMem a = SimpleMem (HS.HashSet a)
>
> instance Mem SimpleMem where
>   recall (SimpleMem mem) a | HS.member a mem = (SimpleMem (HS.delete a mem), True)
>                            | otherwise = (SimpleMem mem, False)
>   learn a (SimpleMem mem) = SimpleMem (HS.insert a mem)


Given a sequence of words we will now read it left to right and then label it $+1$ if we need to learn the word and $-1$ if we are recalling it.

> walk :: (Mem m, Eq a, Hashable a) => m a -> [a] -> [Int]
> walk initial = go initial
>   where go _ [] = []
>         go !mem (a:as) =
>           case recall mem a of
>             (mem', False) -> 1 : go (learn a mem') as
>             (mem', True) -> (-1) : go mem' as


Finally, let’s have a simple way to read a text file. We won’t bother with stemming and all that.

> readTextFile :: String -> IO [String]
> readTextFile fp = readFile fp >>= return . words . map clean
>   where clean c | isLetter c = toLower c
>                 | isMark c = c
>                 | otherwise = ' '

ghci> rs <- readTextFile "frankenstein.txt" >>= return . walk (SimpleMem HS.empty)
ghci> take 50 rs
[1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,-1]

ghci> take 50 \$ scanl1 (+) rs
[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,29,30,31,32,31,32,33,32,33,32,33,32,31,32,33,32,31,30]


For now, I leave you with a plot of the walk on frankenstein.txt and pride_and_prejudice.txt. Already note something curious

1. Number of words in frankenstein.txt is $78329$. Value of sum of random variables is $4741$.

2. Number of words in pride_and_prejudice.txt is $125879$. Value of sum of random variables is $4151$. Example walks on two books

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