Starting Probabilistic Document Retrieval

I want to work through some papers on probabilistic document retrieval mainly to find out the state of things in this area with regards to the depth of infiltration of generative models in this domain. Note that literature refers to document retrieval as ‘ad-hoc retrieval’ as opposed to say ‘passage retrieval’ for retrieving parts of a document.

I’m starting with a paper from (2006) by Xing Wei et. al [1] that introduces LDA to extend the basic language model for retrieval. The basic model (often referred to as the query likelihood model) evaluates each query term q (multiple query terms are treated independently) with respect to a document d according to

\displaystyle  p_1(q|d) = \frac{N_d}{N_d + \mu} p^*(q|d) + \left( 1 - \frac{N_d}{N_d + \mu} \right) p^*(q)

where p^*(w|d) = \frac{N_{dw}}{N_d} is the empirical probability of w in document d; p^*(w) is the empirical probability of w in the entire collection; and \mu is a tunable Dirichlet prior to prefer words in the document or to prefer words in the entire collection.

The main problem with this approach is when the query terms are words that do not exist within the target documents. For instance, a user might search for “daily planes from Chicago to New York” where “planes” is an unusual term to use compared to the usual “flights”. The use of “planes” will cause problems with the query likelihood model but we know that LDA, for instance, will tend to group “planes” and “flights” under one topic and will not confuse it much.

So, the authors augment the query likelihood model with LDA’s judgment of a query word given the topic mixture at document d with preference (1-\lambda).

\displaystyle  p_2(q|d) = \lambda p_1(q|d) + (1-\lambda)\sum_z p(z|d)p(q|z)

Though it introduces yet another tuning parameter, it’s not much effort to automate its inference using hill-climbing. The results show consistent improvement over the query likelihood model. There’s not much more to say about this since many models have supplanted this; I’ll take a look at further models in the upcoming posts.

[1] Xing Wei and W. Bruce Croft. 2006. LDA-based document models for ad-hoc retrieval. Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR).

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